In considering the use of L1 (the learners mother tongue) in ELT (English Language Teaching) on the part of the teacher, one of the first assumptions is that the teacher has a sufficient command of the students L1 to be of value in the first place. Another assumption which may well affect this scenario is that all the learners in a class or group have the same L1. While these assumptions may often be the case in numerous EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching / learning settings, many times they are not. In the case of multi-cultural classes (ie, in the USA, UK, Australia, Canada, India, etc.) where the learners have different L1s, or when the teacher does not have a working knowledge of the learners L1, a frequent occurrence in Asia, Africa and eastern Europe, applied L1 use in the EFL classroom is strictly limited or may be rendered virtually impossible.
Use of L1 in the Classroom
In my case, I'll talk about those instances where I do in fact use the learners L1 in my EFL classes. I have acquainted a working knowledge of Spanish and all my university and independent students have Spanish as their L1. Although I'm against any substantial use of L1 in ESOL (the teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages) classes, there are situations where its use is quite valuable. In addition, at early levels a ratio of about 5 per cent native language to about 95 per cent target language may be more profitable than the use of "English only". (Atkinson, 1987) On the first day of class with a new group, I explain to the learners that they are allowed to ask "How do you say ______ in Spanish?" where the Spanish (L1) word or phrase is filled in the blank. This allows the students to get key vocabulary in their written or spoken expression while limiting their use of L1 in class.
When learners are stumped for abstract lexis, a word or phrase which can not be easily elicited during the course of a lesson, I'll simply "give" them the word in Spanish to aid in continuing with the smooth flow of the lesson and not get "bogged down" in trying to come up with the elusive lexis by other means. When a student gives me production of incomprehensible language, ie, I (nor the other learners) can not decipher what the student is trying to say in English, I'll say "Tell me that in Spanish." Armed with this new understanding I (or one of the other learners) can then provide that learner with corrected, comprehensible forms which else might elude both (or even all) of us.
During a written exam, I'll also "give" the learners a word or phrase writing it on the board in English and / or Spanish to avoid extensive disruption of the test-taking process. Since I do not prepare the exams, new lexis can creep into readings, instructions or exercises. When a learner, and as additional learners, ask for meaning or explanation of the word (s), I'll simply point to the lexis on the board without speaking.
When playing communicative, TPR (Asher, 1966 and passim) or "fast-paced" vocabulary games such as a learner favorite called "STOP", I'll again provide a translation of new lexis to help develop the learners vocabulary. These could be lexis of places, names in English / Spanish, foods, animals or some verbs or use of the L1 in various code-switching activities. (Clandfield – Foord, 2003) This happens especially frequently when I need to explain why a particular word is incorrect or can not be used.
L1 Use with LEP Learners
One additional instance when I switch to Spanish is when I must speak to LEP (Limited English Proficiency) learners about important administrative matters or procedures for which they do not have the necessary depth of vocabulary to understand. The importance of the material and their need to understand it outweigh the adherence of sticking to "English only" which is my "standard operating procedure" in the classroom. This is especially true in my case with groups of learners with less than about 250 contact hours of English which is equivalent to third semester or less. Note: Atkinson (1987 and passim) states 150 hours or less (second semester) for this stage although I have found it often extending into an additional semester.
On occasion, students will bring in a song or lyrics, usually Rock or Pop music, and ask the meaning of a word, phrase, expression or sometimes even the title. In providing the requested explanation (when I can), I use comparisons and / or translations into Spanish as often as is necessary. The same may occur with dialogue from popular films, movies and videos produced for native speakers of English. In rare instances, a cassette recording of a radio broadcast or book-on-tape has made its way into my bedroom for the same reasons.
A final common instance in my use of L1 in the classroom is with learners in "repeat" or "remedial" classes of LEP learners. Since these learners have already demonstrated that the "traditional" teaching methods provided for in their course books is insufficient in teaching them the material. All these learners have failed the course at this level at least once, some twice or more. I subsequently use a series of alternative methodologies including translation and other types of input / feedback in the learners L1 to aid in the learning – acquisition process. These methods have, in fact, proved to be very successful. One reason may be that use of particular-targeted methodologies and altered classroom conditions help to lower the learners Affective Filters (Krashen-Terrell, 1983) and direct the new material and lexis to them in ways more compatible with their individual Multiple Intelligences and preferred learning styles (Gardner, 1983).
In conclusion I have stated that my use of L1 in the EFL classroom is minimal and should not exceed a ratio of more than 5% of the L1 to 95% of the target language. Key EFL classroom situations in which L1 can be utilized include:
o requesting new lexis
o explaining abstract terms
o to assist in the generation of comprehensive input / production
o during exams and other high-stress situations
o to maintain the flow of dynamic activities
o to explain idioms and expressions in songs, movies and videos
o giving information / instructions to LEP learners
o in adapting materials to the special needs of the learners
While the use of the learners L1 should be strictly controlled, it is plausible to make accurate use of it in activities to promote learning and acquisition. Ongoing language acquisition research and in-class practice supports that use of L1 should not be prohibited for its own sake, but allowed occasionally as an additional tool in the repertoire of the teacher and the learners as conditions warrant.
Note: Academic references for this article are available on request.